Saturday, June 22, 2013

Partial list of new ingredients the Moors gradually introduced to the West via Spain (8th-15th centuries)


            - Grains: Short-grained rice, hard wheat for bread and pasta (distinct from soft-wheat introduced by the Romans), millet, spelt and sorghum (a cereal grass)
            - Fresh and dried fruits and nuts, rhizomes and tubers: Lemons, limes,  bitter oranges for   medicinal and liturgical uses, dates (Iraq), pomegranates, apricots, peaches, bananas, honeydew melons (Egypt), watermelons (N. Africa), coconuts, figs, quince, new varieties of grapes, raisins, currants, and mangoes
            - Condiments: murrī (A thick soy sauce concoction made and fermented, rotten barley, etc. outdoors and taking several months to produce.)
            - Nuts: Almonds, pistachios, pine nuts, walnuts and chestnuts
            - Sweeteners: Sugar cane (India and Persia) and its refinement into fine white sugar, new bee varieties   
      - Herbs and Spices: Saffron, cinnamon (bark and ground from India), coriander, nutmeg and cloves (South East Asia), cumin, anise seed, pepper and ginger (India), basil, mint, jasmine, and tamarind. Importation of gum mastic, asafetida and other gums and saps as flavoring, mint, parsley cilantro and sage.
            - Vegetables and Tubers: Gourds, eggplant, artichoke, carrot, zucchini, asparagus, leeks, spinach, and new hybrids of less bitter cabbage, taro, and cucumbers
            - Beverages: Coffee, coconut milk, sharbat (A category of drinks called 'snow drinks' made with fruit juice and sugar and chilled with either snow or ice.)

--  Santich. 1995. p.25-26.; Freeman. 2007. p. 135, by James Moore

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